Everyone has his own specific vocation or mission in life; everyone must carry out a concrete assignment that demands fulfillment. Therein he cannot be replaced, nor can his life be repeated, thus, everyone’s task is unique as his specific opportunity to implement it.” — Viktor E. Frankl
This is the second part of a series on Meaningful Purpose Psychology. You can read Part 1 linking here.
This post will briefly explain the Meaningful Purpose Psychology’s (Logoteleology) identity model. In addition, this model offers a perspective on why you act the way you do. The Logoteleology Identity Model also aids in diagnosing and strengthening self-determination, and the ability to successfully adapt to life’s demands. For a full explanation, please refer to the book, The Path to a Meaningful Purpose: Psychological Foundations to Logoteleology.
The Logoteleological Identity
In my previous post, “Knowing Who You Are, and Learning to Become” I explained the three types of identities based on Peter J. Burke and Jan E Stets’ work.  Today’s subject is The Meaningful Purpose Psychology (herewith Logoteleology) Identity Model. The model has four parts and is explained through the formula:
I = P + Mo + Me
I = Identity
P = Purpose
Mo = Motivation
Me = Meaning
The formula states that an identity is made of purposes, motivations, and meanings. Each time you self-reference, as in “I am ____”, you are talking about your identity or how you self-describe. In Logoteleology an Identity is made of the three functions; Purpose, Motivation, and Meaning. By “function” it is meant that each one of these parts has a role to fulfill in an identity.
Meanings trigger a Motivation that spurs Purpose
According to the model, behavior starts from the meaning function, which spurs a motivation type and a degree of energy, which in turn provokes a purpose or action. It is represented through the formula:
I = P ← Mo ← Me
Explained in simple terms, the meaning we give to a situation, another person, his or her behavior, our own self-worth, etc. determines a motivation. The motivation in turn triggers a type of response. Let’s see an example:
Mary sees her professor at a distance and remembers she owes him a class paper. She would be embarrassed to face him; so she ducks into the nearest store to avoid him.
Here is the explanation:
Mary may have given a few meanings to the situation; such as, that she believes that she is irresponsible, afraid to confront the professor, and unable to give a defensible explanation for her procrastination.
Those meanings subsequently send a message to the motivation function that instructs: “Quick, avoid!”
The instructions from the motivation function, “Quick, avoid!” triggers a purpose or action, “Run to a hiding place!” So Mary’s purpose function scans for a potential route of escape, and hastens into the nearest store. By this action, Mary is being purposeful — defined by the dictionary as having purpose and full of meaning. In other words, her action is propelled by meaning.
What are meanings?
Viktor Frankl provided a simple and practical answer: “Meaning is what is meant, be it by a person who asks me a question, or by a situation which, too, implies a question and calls for an answer.” [ii] And, “There is only one meaning to each situation, and this is its true meaning.” [iii] Here are two additional and complimentary definitions from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary: [iv]
- the idea that a person wants to express by using words, signs, etc.
- something meant or intended
In logoteleology, a third definition for meaning is tied to identities; and to a construct which I call meaning sets made of meaning types. These will be discuss in the next segment below.
Pertaining to what a person wants to express, British analytical psychologist Dale Mathers summarized well what the combined intended meaning and the decoded meaning denote: “Meaning is an act of communication, rather than a communication.” [v] Here, communication is a two-way exchange that succeeds when both parties are “on the same page” or when understanding is shared and mutual.
For instance, cultures vary on their approach to timeliness. In many countries in the northern hemisphere when one agrees to meet at 8:00 a.m. it means just that. It assumes the parties will be a bit early or meet at 8:00 a.m. as planned. On the other hand, in many Hispanic countries, saying you are going to meet at 8:00 a.m. means a range of time after 8:00 a.m. For instance, 8:15 a.m. would not be considered “being late.” As a traveler myself, I have learned to pay attention to these and other cultural differences so that I can be “on the same page” — or share the same meaning — with my hosts to prevent misunderstandings.
The second, meaning as “something meant or intended” is about conveying intentions or aims. This intentional effort is stronger than casual everyday exchange of information. Here is how the dictionary defines [to] “mean”: [vi]
- to have in mind as a purpose: intend
- to serve or intend to convey, show, or indicate: signify
- to have importance to the degree of
- to direct to a particular individual
- to have an intended purpose
- Something that is conveyed or intended, especially by language, sense of significance [vii]
- Full of meaning, expressive [viii]
In MPP, we use these definitions of “meaning” or “to mean” to explain how individuals intend, convey and grant significance and value. For instance, I hear the chime of my clock that it is 9:00 a.m. The time is significant because I intend to meet a friend whose friendship is valuable to me. Granting significance, intending to take an action, and valuing means something.
Meaning is the stuff that makes thinking and feeling possible. It allows us to define and to recognize things, individuals, and concepts. It also aids us to exchange information with others in order to make sense of things, and to cooperate to get things done. Meanings too, evaluate and convey the significance we attribute to concepts, things, and people.
In my book I penned that meanings are “the expressed attributes, beliefs, attitudes, aims, feelings, and values of an identity.” Each one of those meanings is known as a meaning type. Meaning types actually organize themselves and interact into a meaning set or a psychological meaning DNA. Thus, meanings are narrative, sensory-filled, and affective stories that explain self, others, and situations. As defined by Frankl, meaning is what is meant or intended. When someone means or intends something, she or he uses a whole array of mental resources to make sense or to decode information. Such resources we label “meaning types”.
For instance, let us follow the example of the student, Mary, and her professor. The belief that the professor could reprimand Mary incites the meaning type feeling in the form of embarrassment and fear. These feelings would then spur an attitude of avoidance at all cost. The attitude in turn stimulates the meaning type aim to hide from the professor. In linear form it would look like this:
belief → feeling → attitude → aim
Thoughts, however, can be — and actually are — more complex than the simple illustration above. But it serves to clarify the point.
The analysis of meaning types is relevant to Telotherapists and Telocoaches, but an in-depth explanation is beyond the scope of this article; but briefly discussed below.
For additional information on meaning, please read my papers titled:
What is Logoteleology’s Definition for Motivation?
John Marshall Reeve offered a fitting definition for motivation: “The study of motivation concerns those processes that give behavior its energy and direction.” The motivation function is tasked with providing the identity with the energy and direction based on a like/don’t like continuum. Logoteleology defines motivation as directed energy. Motivation is ultimately directed by and responsive to the meaning given to the situation or target.
Motivation’s Directions and Energy
In Logoteleology motivation can be any of these three based on the like/don’t like continuum:
- Attraction or intrinsically and free-willed motivation “I want to do this!”
- Resistance or extrinsically driven (i.e. compulsive) motivation “I will do it because I have to; but if I had a choice I would not…. [”We use the term “drive” following the dictionary definition:
- Avoidance, which can be the outcome of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Avoidance is intrinsic when it is willed as a tactical retreat and free choice. On the other hand, avoidance is extrinsic because of feelings of:
- Helplessness “I don’t have the confidence to do this”
- Apathy “I am bored by or I don’t care for this situation”; and
- Rebellion “I refuse to do this”
Each one of these types will spark a level of excitement or enthusiasm. Motivation can be sustained by high degrees of energy on the one end – as in the attraction type; and in the other extreme be totally absent – as in the avoidance type. This excitement (also known as a “telosponse”) is human (motivational) energy.
So, as seen above, the meaning set:
- Ascribes the energy level (i.e. intensity); and
- Assigns a type of direction (Will, Drive (i.e. compulsive), or Amotivate/Demotivate)
Why is this relevant? Because if the meaning we give to situations and targets influence energy levels and a type of motivation we can then find more effective ways to will ourselves toward success. It has application in building personal effectiveness, and in businesses interested in increasing productivity.
Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom. – Unknown
Diagnosing Personality (Identities)
Logoteleologists study the content and quality of meaning sets. Studying these psychological constructs helps the practitioner and their clients explain why outputs (as consequences of behavior) are meaningful or meaningless. (For a brief description of what is meaningful and meaningless, please read my post titled, “What is Meaningful? And why knowing matters”)
Qualified therapists are known as “logotelotherapists” or by the shorter name (and most commonly used), “telotherapists”. Logotelotherapy means healing through meaningful purpose. Qualified coaches are known as Telocoaches. [Logo]Telocoaching means coaching through meaningful purpose. Finally, qualified Logoteleology Organization Development [OD] consultants are trained to assess, to facilitate, to consult, and to aid in transforming organizations through meaningful purpose. There are methods and psychometrics for these approaches taught through the Boston Institute for Meaningful Purpose certification and licensing program. The Institute also promotes research in the methodology.
On the other hand, qualified Logoteleology facilitators, coaches, and Organization Development Consultants, respectively, are trained, certified and licensed to facilitate learning, to coach, and to consult for meaningful purpose to groups and large systems, such as corporations and government agencies.
I will say more about the type of diagnosis performed by telotherapy practitioners in a future post.
To date, through my coaching practice, the Logoteleology Identity Model has helped clients to better understand themselves, and to make conscious meaningful choices to improve their quality of life. Knowing how the meaning content influences a type of motivation and purpose makes sense. To strengthen self-determination for the meaningful, the task becomes changing meanings in order to trigger the right type of motivation and subsequent action and results. I am encouraging universities and other research centers to further research the benefit of the model and to find ways to improve interventions.
I also facilitate Meaningful Purpose Laboratories where participants work to strengthen self-determination for a meaningful life. For more information on the benefits of a Meaningful Purpose Laboratory, please refer to the Boston Institute for Meaningful Purpose webpage at www.bostonimp.com.
© 2014. Luis A. Marrero. Boston Institute for Meaningful Purpose.
 Burke, Peter J and Jan E. Stets, Identity Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
 Marrero, Luis. The Path to a Meaningful Purpose: Psychological Foundations of Logoteleology. Bloomington: IUniverse, 2013. Page 64.
 Reeve, Johnmarshall, Understanding Motivation and Emotions. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
 See also Ryan, Richard M., Kennon M. Sheldon, Tim Kasser, and Edward L. Deci, “All Goals Are Not Created Equal: An Organistic Perspective of Goals and Regulation.” Gollwitzer, Peter M., and John A. Bargh, Eds. The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. (New York: The Guilford Press, 1996), 7–26.